Trying to decide which type of knife sharpener will work best for you in the battle of manual vs electric knife sharpener? It’s not an easy battle, since there are so many different types, methods, versions, brands bombarding you with options. One thing is for sure though, using sharp knives in the kitchen is imperative. Continuing to use dull blades when cutting and chopping can cause more than just frustration, it can cause injury. Thus, it’s important to figure this out. Just what type of knife sharpener should you buy? The question usually comes down to manual vs electric knife sharpener.
The goal when sharpening is to create a burr, which is a tiny whisper of metal left on one side of the blade. You'll know you have a burr when you can feel one smooth and one scratchy side to the edge. Warner's is formed in no time at all; I struggled. Nevertheless, eventually I got there. Once you've got the burr, it's time to move on to step three.
As you continue to repeat strokes on the first time, eventually a tiny burr will form on the other side of the blade. To check for it, place the blade on your thumb, and pull it backwards. If the burr has formed, it should catch slightly on your thumb (with really fine grit stones, say 2000 or above, you won't feel this). This may take up to 30 or 40 strokes, and is the indication that you should switch and start sharpening the other side.

A: Like cars, knife sharpeners run the gamut from basic to luxury and like cars the price can vary from extremely affordable to more than some people might want to spend. You can get a high quality sharpener that will put your knives through a 2 or 3-stage process which will result in an incredibly sharp edge for less than $20. Or you can buy a mechanical sharpener that will produce a virtually flawless edge for $200+.

The Work Sharp WSKTS-KO Knife and Tool Sharpener is a handheld device, which is optimized to handle various sharpening jobs. It comes with a belt sander, which spins around following a triangular configuration. It has a set of angles on either side, which can be adjusted from 15 to 30 degrees, depending on your sharpening needs. Unlike other electric knife sharpeners, which tend to overheat during high speeds, the speed of this one is adjustable.
The Sunrise Pro doesn’t have the pedigree of some other knife sharpeners on our list but it performs as advertised and that’s all that matters. For a relative song you get to restore all the knives, steak knives, cleavers in your kitchen to near pristine condition. It’s easy to use and the nice strong suction cup on the bottom means you can put the band aids away.
I give Sharp Pebble a top rating for two reasons. First, the company emailed a user guide for me to review and learn how to best use its product while it was being shipped to me. Wonderfully proactive. Second, the sharpening stone did a terrific job restoring the edge on my kitchen knives that had been woefully neglected. Ever rent a house and every knife in the kitchen has the edge of a butter knife? I was almost there. Now, the knives are cutting beautifully. I have only one suggestion for Sharp Pebble. While the stone includes a useful angle guide that can be attached to a blade and the guide gives clear steps on prepping the stone and how to hold the blade when sharpening, it does not illustrate the manner in which the blade needs to be moved across the stone. I had to go to Youtube to get some tips on the exact method. I have historically been very bad at putting an edge on a blade due to ignorance primarily. But with the help of the video and a good stone, I did an effective job. The base does a great job of holding the stone in place and is attractive in the kitchen.

Begin with your lower-grit stone. Place the heel of your knife on the far edge of the stone, holding the blade gently but firmly with both hands at a 15- to 20-degree angle. Using even pressure, slowly drag the knife over the stone toward you down the length of the stone while simultaneously moving the knife such that the contact point moves toward the tip of the blade.


As Mal Knives shows in a review, the Chef's Choice sharpener creates a triple bevel on the blade, which allows it to work with both Asian and European/American knives. The bevels are at roughly 25 degrees, 20 degrees, and 15 degrees. This triple bevel design increases the length of time required between sharpenings. However, one Amazon customer reviewer disliked the sharpening results on Asian knives with this machine.
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The stones from Shapton are probably the hardest of all Japanese sharpening stones. They will remain flat for a long time. They are therefore the best choice if you are looking for a relatively coarse stone that cuts quickly without having to be dressed repeatedly. The finer-grained stones also work very well. But Shapton stones do not provide the mirror finish you can achieve with softer stones.
The sharpener has come a long way in the past couple of thousand years and yet it hasn’t. That is, while there have been incredible advances in the development of mechanical knife sharpeners the classic and very ancient sharpening stone is still with us and very much in use as you read this. The best knife sharpener for you will be one that meets the needs of your cuisine and your temperament but which, first and foremost, reliably produces the sharp knives (look after your knife!) you need with the least hassle.
You will be given access to our useful online learning material: a set of videos and articles to help you improve your sharpening technique. These resources were made by professional knife sharpeners, specifically for beginners and intermediate sharpeners. The articles and videos will guide you and teach you knife sharpening from scratch, also covering more advanced techniques. You can also get in touch with us anytime if you have any questions concerning sharpening specific types knives.
Chefs and meat cutters frequently pause and “steel” their cutting edges. Steeling doesn’t sharpen an edge; it straightens it. That’s necessary because the thin edge actually bends or warps while you’re cutting. If you could see the edge under a microscope, it would look wavy, and it would feel dull while cutting. Steeling the knife straightens out all those waves to restore a straight, even cutting edge. So when your knife begins to seem dull, don’t sharpen it—steel it first. Every time you grab a knife for the first time to begin cutting, steel it before you even get started. But it’s important to do it right or you’ll just make the edge worse. And don’t act like one of the Iron Chefs on TV and do it all up in the air—you’ll eventually wind up in the ER. Rest the end of the steel on a cutting board and do your steeling the safer and more accurate way. It’s very important that you steel at an angle between 20 and 30 degrees. Photo 1 shows you how to figure that out.

I give Sharp Pebble a top rating for two reasons. First, the company emailed a user guide for me to review and learn how to best use its product while it was being shipped to me. Wonderfully proactive. Second, the sharpening stone did a terrific job restoring the edge on my kitchen knives that had been woefully neglected. Ever rent a house and every knife in the kitchen has the edge of a butter knife? I was almost there. Now, the knives are cutting beautifully. I have only one suggestion for Sharp Pebble. While the stone includes a useful angle guide that can be attached to a blade and the guide gives clear steps on prepping the stone and how to hold the blade when sharpening, it does not illustrate the manner in which the blade needs to be moved across the stone. I had to go to Youtube to get some tips on the exact method. I have historically been very bad at putting an edge on a blade due to ignorance primarily. But with the help of the video and a good stone, I did an effective job. The base does a great job of holding the stone in place and is attractive in the kitchen.
High Grit Stones: These are also known as finishing stones with the number range going up to 8000, and give you a super refined edge.  They work great with Western knives as they cutting edge resembles a “U” as opposed to a “V”. If you are using your knife to cut meat, then you can happily stop at 4000 or 6000 grit. If you are only using it for vegetables or fruit go all the way to the 8000.
The water stones work great for me. I spend about 10 minutes every other month with a 1000 grit and a 6000 grit to maintain it. I am very careful with my edge and I don't hack at beef bones with it and I always hand wash. It is truly something to experience when using a sharp knife. I have been a home cook for over 30 years. I used to think that the electric sharpener I have worked great, but now I know better.

Now move the blade – with a little pressure – in regular strokes up and down across the sharpening stone. Always maintain the angle between the blade and the stone. You will notice a burr becomes visible after five or so strokes. Mentally divide the blade into three parts if the knife has a large blade. Always start with the tip and work back towards the bolster.


Start off on the rough grit side of the stone. Check the grit on your stone, or the packaging that came with the stone, to identify which is which. In general, whetstones and diamond stones each have different grits on either side. The rough grit side is used to grind the steel down, while the fine grit side is used to sharpen or hone the knife. The grinding process comes first, so you start on the rough grit side.
Grinding is generally done with some type of sharpening stone. Sharpening stones come in coarse and fine grits and can be described as hard or soft based on whether the grit comes free of the stone with use. Many sources of naturally occurring stones exist around the world; some types known to the ancient world are no longer used, due to exhaustion of former resources or the ready availability of superior alternatives. Arkansas, USA is one source for honing stones, which are traditionally used with water or honing oil. India is another traditional source for stones. Ceramic hones are also common, especially for fine grit size. Japanese water stones (both artificial and natural) come in very fine grits. Before use, they are soaked in water, then flushed with water occasionally to expose new stone material to the knife blade. The mixture of water and abraded stone and knife material is known as slurry, which can assist with the polishing of the knife edge and help sharpen the blade. Generally, these are more costly than oilstones. Coated hones, which have an abrasive, sometimes diamonds, on a base of plastic or metal, are also available.
A major benefit of sharpening your knives on a sharpening stone is that you can thin out your knife. When thinning out a knife, you grind away extra material on the sides of the blade, making the blade thinner. Thinning of a knife is useful for knives that are often sharpened, as the cutting edge gets fatter when the blade is sharpened more often. Thinning is of great importance for the preservation of good cutting properties.

If you have already perused some of the knife review pages on this website, you have probably noticed that I usually select a “Best in Class”, “Best Value”, and Best something else for each Top Three Choices section. What I quickly noticed when working with these knife sharpeners was that it simply wouldn’t be possible to do such a thing. Each of these types of sharpeners is so different from the other types that I felt all deserved their very own “Best in Class” selections.
High Grit Stones: These are also known as finishing stones with the number range going up to 8000, and give you a super refined edge.  They work great with Western knives as they cutting edge resembles a “U” as opposed to a “V”. If you are using your knife to cut meat, then you can happily stop at 4000 or 6000 grit. If you are only using it for vegetables or fruit go all the way to the 8000.
“I definitely do feel a difference between when I use this knife sharpener and when I don't,” reported one of our testers. “Vegetables are much easier to chop and bread is easier to cut.” She also thought the instructions were detailed and clear, and that the sharpener looked “elegant” on the countertop. However, one of our testers did point out that because the sharpener is both large and heavy, it’s not very portable. “I would like it to be smaller and lighter — maybe one day they'll make a mini version for camping,” she mused.

Heres why I wasn't impressed at first. I only used it for a few minutes on each side, which resulted in nothing. I watched a video online with a master chef using his stone, and he sharpened his knife for 10 minutes on each stone before moving up to a finer grit. I took this hint, and used sharpened my knife on each side of this stone for 10 minutes, which led to perfection.
Meanwhile, if you want something that you can use to sharpen a variety of knives and edges, including small and pointed tools, you might want to consider the DMT WM8CX-WB 8-Inch Duo Sharp Plus Bench Stone – Coarse/Extra Coarse with Base. For less than a hundred bucks, you can even use it to repair a damaged edge because of its extra-coarse diamonds.

Aesthetics – While it’s true that most people keep their sharpener, (even their expensive mechanical sharpeners) in the drawer until it’s time to use them you’ll still want to be aware of whether your sharpener fits into the overall aesthetic of your kitchen when you do take it out to use. While sharpener designs are fairly limited to be sure you typically have some control over the color and finish of the device as well as design factors like whether the device is boxy or rounded in appearance. With a stone sharpener or a stick however you pretty much get what you get.
Once you’ve decided that an electric knife sharpener is for you, it comes down to finding the right one. Unfortunately, there isn’t just one sharpener that is right for everyone. For that reason, we’ve put together a chart to help you choose between the top knife sharpeners for 2017. In this table, the knife type “standard” refers to a standard straight-edge, 20-degree American/European blade. All sizes are in inches.
It is fitted with ceramic and carbide sharpening rods, on top of its basic plastic construction. The rods are designed to work in stages, depending on the results that you seek to achieve. The carbide sharpening rod is enhanced with various materials, as well as color shades. Its coarse surface helps to eliminate dents and bluntness on any knife. On the other hand, the stage two ceramic rod helps you to achieve a fine edge.
The stick – With a stick sharpener hold the sharpener in front of you (facing away from you) with one hand and the handle in the other hand. Hold the base of the knife against the base of the tip at a slight angle and then push the blade along the stick pulling it across the stick at the same time. The tip of the blade should cross the end of the stick. To sharpen the other side of the blade place it under the stick and repeat the process making sure to reverse the angle at which you are holding the knife against the stick.
Turning my mind away from the fancy advertising gimmicks which had lured me to the sharpener that I almost selected for this position, I began looking closer at consumer ratings and reviews. Of all the manual knife sharpeners I found, all five included here on this page, the Sunrise Pro had, by far, the most positive consumer ratings. It’s hard to argue with people who have used this device in everyday settings and seen positive results.
The SunrisePro Knife Sharpener is designed to make your cutting life easy. This USA-made and patented knife sharpener, features a striking red theme and an unusual design. It has an advanced grinding system, which allows you to sharpen different types of knives. This 100% original knife sharpener, also comes with a powerful suction cup. It is quick and easy to use. This SunrisePro Knife Sharpener review, tells you everything that you need to know about this product.

With this toolkit, setting an exact sharpening angle at which to guide the blade works great, according to Let's Talk Survival's review. The kit ships with five water stones, ranging from 120 to 1,000 grit, allowing for coarse to fine sharpening. It also contains 2,000 and 3,000 grit polish tapes for honing. The stones fit tightly into the kit's design, ensuring no slippage as you use the kit's angle guide to draw the knife blade across the stones.
A blade's sharpness may be tested by checking if it "bites"—begins to cut by being drawn across an object without pressure. Specialized sticks exist to check bite, though one can also use a soft ballpoint pen, such as the common white Bic Stic. A thumbnail may be used[3] at the risk of a cut, or the edge of a sheet of paper. For kitchen knives, various vegetables may be used to check bite, notably carrots, tomatoes, or cucumbers. In testing in this way, any nicks are felt as obstacles.

This is an important but often confusing aspect of the sharpening process. When you sharpen knives, especially on coarser stones, you'll notice a burr form on the opposite side of the edge. It can be difficult to see, but easy to feel. Carefully feel for the burr by running your finger from the spine of the knife to the edge. The burr will jump from side to side as you sharpen each edge, and once you've felt the burr move to both sides, you can move to the next finer stone. Once you get to the finest grit, the burr will become smaller and smaller!


I wanted an upgrade to my Smith's pocket sharpener, and this is perfect for all of my fixed blade and folding knives. It sits firmly on flat surfaces. Drawing the blades through the stones is effortless. This is a great purchase as an alternative to using flat stones, which I've never been good at. It doesn't take long to set a nice edge on my knives.
Whetstones may be natural or artificial stones. Artificial stones usually come in the form of a bonded abrasive composed of a ceramic such as silicon carbide (carborundum) or of aluminium oxide (corundum). Bonded abrasives provide a faster cutting action than natural stones. They are commonly available as a double-sided block with a coarse grit on one side and a fine grit on the other enabling one stone to satisfy the basic requirements of sharpening. Some shapes are designed for specific purposes such as sharpening scythes, drills or serrations.[9]

using an appropriate blade for the task – a thinner blade for more delicate work, and a thicker blade whenever a thinner blade is not required (e.g. a thinner blade might be used to cut fillets, butterfly steak or roast for stuffing, or perform Mukimono, while a thicker one might be used to slice or chop repeatedly, separate primal cuts of poultry or small game, or scrape and trim fat from meat or hide, as these actions would be more likely to cause unnecessary wear on a thinner blade.)
The Kitchen IQ Edge is a very uniquely-designed manual sharpener. It has been created to sit on the edge of your countertop or any other flat surface featuring a 90-edge. In fact, it would be great for working atop a picnic table when you are camping. To grip the corner even better, the entire corner-catching edge has been lined with rubber. The rubber continues along the outer edges as well so that you can easily sit this sharpener on top of any flat surface. However, if you choose to do so I must advise you to be careful not to let the tip touch the countertop when you do. Unlike some of the others on our list, this one sharpener will not sit very high up off of the counter and, thus, will not give you much clearance.
From the look of it, one can easily tell that it is designed to deliver the user comfort when using it, safety and great results. The knife sharpener is made of quality ABS material that does not rust. The base is flattened, and it is non-slip in nature. The user enjoys two stage sharpening system from this product. This makes it easy to operate and also sharpen the knives. You can use it for steel straight blade kitchen knives.
If style and interior décor are important to you and you intend to leave your sharpener on the countertop, you will be happy to hear that this Chef’s Choice is available in six stunning colors. The colors include black, white, red, chrome, brushed metal, and platinum. Though they may not be the best matches for many country or vintage-style homes, these sharpeners will look fantastic on the countertop in an urban, industrial, or modern-style home.
In most cases a sharpening stone will be a combination of sharpening grains and a binding agent. However, in case of a Ardennes Coticule it is a completely natural product. The grains have cutting edges which enables them to sharpen your knife. As soon as a sharpening stone is used little pieces of the grains break off, revealing a new cut ing edge. The higher the number, the finer the grain. Stones with coarse grains (up to grain 400) can be used to shape the blade of a blunt knife. You can subsequently take care of the fine finish with a stone with a smaller grain.
The speed and polishing ability of waterstones attract many sharpeners. Waterstones sharpen quickly and are available in fine polishing grits not found in other stone types. The ability to flatten the stones is a necessity when sharpening with waterstones, so a starting set should include a flattening stone of some kind. Our article, How to Flatten a Waterstone, has more information about keeping waterstones flat.
Similar to electric sharpeners, manual sharpeners simplify the entire sharpening process. However, they tend to have fewer slots for sharpening. One benefit of manual or handheld sharpeners is their portability. Their manual operation, combined with their small size, makes it convenient for cooking professionals who are always on the move. Depending on how the manual sharpener is designed, you can either draw your knife between the slots or the sharpener is moved along the blade of the knife. Whichever type you choose, manual sharpeners easily sharpen a blunt or dull knife, to the desired level of sharpness.
Pull-through machine: A pull-through sharpener, also called a manual sharpener, works best with kitchen knives. You'll pull the knife blade through the sharpener, which includes guide slots with the sharpening agent inside. Some pull-through sharpeners allow you to adjust the angle of the blade, which helps with different types of knives. Some provide multiple guide slots, ranging from coarse to fine sharpening.
This knife sharpener features precision-ground tungsten-carbide sharpener on bars which can automatically adjust to provide different blade angles. And just by changing hand positions, you can easily fine-sharp or hone the knife as often as you like. With regular honing, you will maintain a sharp edge without removing metal and extending the lifetime of the blade.
Sharpal 178N TRANSFORMAN 3-In-1 Diamond Round and Tapered Sharpal 178N TRANSFORMAN 3-In-1 Diamond Round and Tapered Rod Sharpener makes it easy to sharpen all kinds of knives including those with serrations gut hooks fishhooks and pointed tools. Industrial monocrystalline diamond is electroplated in nickel onto a steel base. Sharpen dry. No messy oil needed. Fine 600 grit (25 ...  More + Product Details Close
Although the Trizor XV is easy to use, you have to use it correctly. That means sharpening one side of the blade at a time until a burr forms, whereas a back-and-forth, one-side-and-then-the-other approach might seem more intuitive. (Don’t worry—the Trizor XV’s manual explains the process plainly.) Maintenance is easy: Once a year or so, you open the bin on the machine’s underside and wipe out the metal shavings that it has conveniently captured there with a magnet.
Works well. Just got it today, sharpened two pocket knives, one a 8Cr13MoV Chinese steel, the other s30v American steel The stone made short work of both steels (which were pretty sharp already). But notably was able to make the s30v hair shaving sharp easily, something I've had trouble with. Inexpensive and useful, I love this stone. It's not the Ninja sharp 8000+ grits that you can find, but for pocket knives and EDC, it's perfect and inexpensive. Get One!!!!!!!!!!!!
Despite being called a “4-Stage” sharpener, this is actually two 2-stage sharpeners in one. You can easily choose between a two-stage sharpener built for a 28 degree angle (14 degrees per side) and one built for a 20 degree angle (10 degrees per side). A sliding plastic guard covers whichever type you are not using to reduce confusion and stop you from accidentally placing your knife into the wrong slot. As someone who likes some knives to be sharper than others, I find this to be quite an impressive feature.
The type and size of the blade being sharpened determines the size of the stone needed. In general , a 6" stone is considered a small sharpening stone, an 8" stone is a common larger size, and a stone larger than 8" (10"-12" are available) is considered generously sized. Stones smaller than 6" (3" and 4" stones are quite common), are considered pocket stones and can be used for toolboxes, tackle boxes and on-the-go sharpening, but are generally not recommended for regular sharpening jobs.
To sharpen, you can use a sharpening stone. Before using, immerse the stone in water for approximately five minutes. Then, place the non-slip side of the stone facing down into a wooden base. For best results, maintain the wetness of the stone throughout the entire process. A grey liquid is produced during sharpening. This is normal and improves the effectiveness.

The Chef’sChoice ProntoPro 4643 is our overall pick among knife sharpeners. A manual model, it was the easiest of all our test models to use—almost intuitive, in fact: You insert the blade in one of the slots and run it back and forth, from heel to tip, until the tool grinds a new edge. The sharpening elements are wheels impregnated with diamond abrasive—a material that Cook’s Illustrated found to be superior (subscription required) to ceramics in both sharpening speed and lack of friction. In our test, about 30 strokes on the coarse wheels under light pressure cut a brand-new edge. Another 20 strokes on the fine, polishing wheels gave the edge a reasonably smooth finish.
After 15 hours of research and testing, and several adult lifetimes of kitchen experience, we recommend the manual Chef’sChoice ProntoPro 4643 as the best mechanical knife sharpener. It’s impressively simple—almost intuitive—to use: You run the blade back and forth between its diamond-impregnated sharpening wheels to cut and then hone a new edge. The ProntoPro 4643 works on both traditional European and Japanese knives, which use different edge angles, making it universally utilitarian. (Note that we also link to otherwise equivalent but cheaper single-angle sharpeners below.)
Serrated blades have a grind on one side of the blade. Only sharpen the grind side of the blade. Hold the sharpener at the angle that matches the original edge angle. Hold the knife with the edge away from you and the serrated side of the edge facing up. Set the tapered diamond sharpener in a serration so that you fill the indentation. Draw the sharpener towards the edge.

A: Like cars, knife sharpeners run the gamut from basic to luxury and like cars the price can vary from extremely affordable to more than some people might want to spend. You can get a high quality sharpener that will put your knives through a 2 or 3-stage process which will result in an incredibly sharp edge for less than $20. Or you can buy a mechanical sharpener that will produce a virtually flawless edge for $200+.

Your stroke can be straight or circular, from "hilt to tip" OR "tip to hilt," whichever is more comfortable. If you're using a small portable sharpener, stroke the blade in nearly a straight direction. Remember to always cut into the stone and never pull or drag your edge backwards. The blade edge should face in the same direction as your stroke. So, you're essentially moving the metal away from the edge. We recommend the circular stroke as it helps you maintain your angle instead of having to find it every time you lift the knife from the stone.
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With 100 percent diamond abrasives and proprietary Trizor Edge technology, this knife sharpener has been engineered to give your knives an incredibly sharp and professional edge. Although it’s designed to professional standards, it’s easy for anyone to use, with magnetic guides that properly position the knife in the sharpening slots and help increase control of the sharpening process.
The Work Sharp WSKTS-KO Knife and Tool Sharpener is a handheld device, which is optimized to handle various sharpening jobs. It comes with a belt sander, which spins around following a triangular configuration. It has a set of angles on either side, which can be adjusted from 15 to 30 degrees, depending on your sharpening needs. Unlike other electric knife sharpeners, which tend to overheat during high speeds, the speed of this one is adjustable.
Electric sharpeners use rotating ceramic or abrasive-impregnated metal wheels to grind a new edge into a blade. Low-end models, which start at about $25, feature a single set of coarse wheels that produce a rough, if potentially serviceable, edge—it depends on how even the edge is, and that’s a matter of overall design and engineering. Higher-end models can cost $200 or more (and professional models for slaughterhouses can approach $1,000), but they feature stronger motors and multiple grinding wheels—coarse, fine, and often polishing/honing—that when well-engineered can put an extremely keen, durable edge on knives of every style and quality.
Some experts recommend sharpening as if trying to slice a thin layer or decal off the stone. Don't consider doing this without significant experience: it is typically bad advice; most people don't hold the correct angle this way. You instinctively raise the blade until you feel and see the edge working. This creates larger edge angles and thicker bevels as time goes on and the results gradually deteriorate. The more you sharpen, the duller it gets. Sound familiar?
This Messermeister rod is available in a 10-inch option and a 12-inch option, allowing you to select whichever suits you best. A general rule I like to follow in selecting a sharpening rod is to select one which is about the same size as my longest blade. As someone who’s longest blade is only 8 inches, I would select the 10-inch option. Most people will find themselves leaning toward that option, since bigger isn’t necessarily better. The rod needs only to be sufficiently long to allow you to sweep your knife down it without running out of rod before you reach the end of your knife. Anything too large will be difficult to control. Therefore, unless you are trying to sharpen a sword, I would advise against the longer option.
A hybrid manual-electric sharpener, the Chef’sChoice Hybrid 210 uses a motor and abrasive wheels to grind the new edge and employs a manual stage to hone it. This sharpener is eminently affordable. However, our top pick, the ProntoPro 4643 multi-blade-angle manual model (as well as its $30 to $40 single-blade-angle kin) produces a better edge and doesn’t make us worry about breakdowns the way the Hybrid 210’s lightweight motor does. 
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